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By Marsha Basloe, President of CCSA

As the President of Child Care Services Association, a mother and a grandmother, I have been following the advancement of HB 485, the Virtual Early Learning Pilot program, under consideration by the North Carolina State Legislature. The 3-year pilot would allow up to 10 school districts to offer online pre-k to at-risk, 4 year-old children, at a cost of $500,000 per year for the next three years.

I know that every year, state legislators are forced to make difficult decisions in allocating state funding. I can imagine that there is great pressure with these decisions and that legislators look for ways to save money, while still achieving intended outcomes. With regard to state pre-k funding and the goal to have all children throughout North Carolina enter school with the skills to succeed, it is important for legislators to understand how young children learn and what school readiness really means.

Decades of research show that the greatest gains made by children in pre-k occur where teacher interactions with children promote critical thinking skills as well as concept knowledge through warm and responsive relationships.[1]  This isn’t by chance. It’s by design. It’s in-person. It’s individualized to meet each child where he or she is at to build on strengths and build up areas that are not as strong.

Numerous evaluations have shown the importance of instructional, social, and emotional serve-and-return interactions that occur daily between teachers and children, as well as among classmates”[2] that result in developmental gains across early childhood domains (e.g., social and emotional, language and literacy, critical thinking and physical development). These interactions “motivate and deepen learning, enable children to organize and focus their attention and other capacities needed to learn, and promote peer cooperation and support,”[3] which comprise the foundation for school readiness. It’s about soft-skill development as well as concept development related to letters and numbers.

In my career, I’ve had the opportunity to visit pre-k classrooms and talk to pre-k teachers. Too many of our at-risk 4 year-olds haven’t been read to; they don’t know that books contain words and pictures that tell a story, that letters have sounds and that stories have a sequence – a beginning, a middle and an end. Some have never held a pencil or colored with crayons or written their name. Some haven’t held a pair of scissors or developed the dexterity to use a pencil or have ever put together a puzzle. You would think by age 4, children would know colors and basic shapes, but some do not.

The same children might know how to watch a video on a parent’s phone, but they can’t wait their turn or share, they can’t transition between activities and they don’t know how to use their words to express their thoughts or feelings in a group setting – to lead, follow or just get along with peers. They may or may not have consistent rules at home so they don’t know how to manage themselves appropriately and follow rules in a classroom. These are soft-skills that are learned in a hands-on experience that can’t be learned through a computer lesson.

Pre-k programs also screen children for vision, hearing, speech and physical development and help identify children who could benefit from early intervention services in areas where there may be a delay. None of this can occur through an online preschool experience – at least not in an effective manner.

The NC Pre-K program works. Studies have found that NC Pre-K raises children’s literacy, math and social-emotional skills not just for kindergarten entry[4] but also throughout elementary school and the most recent research shows gains through middle school.[5]

When kindergarten teachers are asked what school readiness means and what skills are most important for school readiness, their top responses include: children who can regulate their impulses, pay attention, listen to and follow directions, be willing to try different tasks (e.g., have self-confidence), engage in self-care, get along with peers and have motor skills such as the ability to hold a pencil.[6]

Despite the strong evaluations of NC Pre-K, current funding supports fewer than half of eligible children. To me, the answer should be to adequately fund NC Pre-K so that 4 year-old children can attend, not divert resources to an online preschool that misses the mark on what matters most for early childhood development – effective interactions with children. Not screen time.

There is still time to course correct on state budget issues. We don’t need a 3-year pilot that diverts $1.5 million from additional pre-k seats for children. Let’s put every dollar possible into expanding what works. And, for 4-year old children, that’s a setting that promotes interactions with teachers and peers.


[1] Investing in Our Future: The Evidence Base on Preschool Education, Society for Research in Child Development and Foundation for Child Development, 2013. https://www.fcd-us.org/assets/2013/10/Evidence20Base20on20Preschool20Education20FINAL.pdf

[2] The Current State of Scientific Knowledge on Pre-Kindergarten Effects, Deborah A. Phillips of Georgetown University, Mark W. Lipsey of  Vanderbilt University, Kenneth A. Dodge of Duke University, Ron Haskins of the Brookings Institution, Daphna Bassok  of the University of Virginia, Margaret R. Burchinal of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Greg J. Duncan of the University of California-Irvine, Mark Dynarski of the Brookings Institution, Katherine A. Magnuson  of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Christina Weiland of the University of Michigan. (2017).  https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/duke_prekstudy_final_4-4-17_hires.pdf

[3] Ibid.

[4] North Carolina Pre-Kindergarten Program Evaluation Key Findings (2002–2016), Frank Porter Graham Institute, University of North Carolina, 2017. https://fpg.unc.edu/sites/fpg.unc.edu/files/resources/reports-and-policy-briefs/Summary%20of%20NC%20Pre-K%20Evaluation%20Findings%205-2017.pdf

[5] Evaluation of North Carolina’s Smart Start and NC Pre-K Programs: Follow-Up Through Eighth Grade, Duke University, December 2018. https://duke.app.box.com/s/pw3zv27a2jkmfas2j183yg4ekamxzl8y

[6] What Kindergarten Readiness Means to Kindergarten Teachers, New America. 2009. https://www.newamerica.org/education-policy/early-elementary-education-policy/early-ed-watch/what-kindergarten-readiness-means-to-kindergarten-teachers/

Week of the Young Child is an annual week-long celebration with themed days hosted by NAEYC to spotlight early learning, young children, their teachers, families and communities. The themes are “Music Monday,” “Tasty Tuesday,” “Work Together Wednesday,” “Artsy Thursday” and “Family Friday.”

2019 art show at Chapel Hill Cooperative Preschool

For “Artsy Thursday,” Mati Vassallo, Family Support Bilingual Referral Counselor, visited Chapel Hill Cooperative Preschool where Kathryn, a 2-3 year old teacher, and Silva, a 3-5 year old teacher, shared how they celebrate through an annual children’s art show. They invited families, friends and the community to celebrate and explore the children’s creative expression.

“This art show is a celebration and a great example of the work we do here at the preschool. It aligns with our philosophy of celebrating each individual child, exploring their strengths and abilities and bringing out their best work,” said Kathryn.

2019 art show at Chapel Hill Cooperative Preschool

“It’s not only a time…to celebrate the richness of the children’s work and their creations, but it’s also really a time to celebrate art and to celebrate community. It goes so much beyond just the artistic creations in the way that it draws us and everyone together…That is something we really enjoy and love to do,” said Silva.

For “Family Friday”, Katie Thayer, UNC intern and Family Engagement Counselor, visited Director Ada Terry and Lead Teacher Crystal Boycher in the Durham PreK classroom at Childcare Network #57 to discuss their family engagement strategies. In addition to having a School Improvement Team and Parent Advisory Board, they send out daily newsletters, invite parents to volunteer, provide resources to families and host celebrations for their families and children.

Katie Thayer, UNC intern and Family Engagement Counselor, visited Director Ada Terry and Lead Teacher Crystal Boycher in the Durham PreK classroom at Childcare Network #57

Crystal’s favorite family engagement activity at Childcare Network #57 is asking the parents to help with school improvement plans, such as redoing the playground and painting the fence. “We also invite parents out to visit the classroom. For Week of the Young Child, we are doing an ice cream social on Friday,” said Crystal.

Save the date for next year’s Week of the Young Child April 13-17.

Written by Christy Thalheimer, M.Ed., CCSA Child Care Referral Manager

It seems fitting that Child Care Provider Appreciation Day is recognized nationally on the same weekend as we celebrate Mother’s Day. We often think of one of the many early educator roles as that of a caretaker; one who offers safety, security, knowledge and compassion to children. When Parenting magazine polled mothers in a recent article about what gifts they wanted for Mother’s Day, the top 10 had nothing to do with something purchased. Instead, the top 10 had one thing in common: taking care of themselves albeit through a clean house, “off mom” routine for a day or a spa day.

A Gift for You

What if I told you I wanted to give you a gift this Provider Appreciation Day of better overall well-being and enhanced connections with your students? What if I told you this was possible without having to spend one dollar or attend another training? 

Welcome to Mindfulness! A simple practice of being present in the moment, with acceptance and openness. Mindfulness strategies can help reduce your stress, lower your anxiety and help you have a more positive and productive emotional state as a teacher.

By now, I am sure most readers have heard of mindfulness through reading a magazine article, a social media post or through mainstream media. It’s a growing trend in the early education field with research supporting practices that can reduce both emotional and physical distress. While mindfulness practices do not replace your health care routines, they can be a complimentary practice that benefit your brain, body and relationships. Learn more about Patricia Jennings’ mindfulness research with teachers at the University of Virginiahere.

The Gift of Mindfulness

I was first introduced to mindfulness in the fall of 2015 out of necessity for a graduate thesis topic and balance in my life. On April 1, 2015, I received the hardest news I have ever had to mentally absorb. My mom, my confidant and grandmother to my 5-year-old, received a diagnosis of cancer. Treatment would begin right away; it was a type of lymphoma cancer and in stage 4. I was devastated! We talked about the care my mom would need and how treatment would affect her life and ability to care for herself. Of course, I would be there through it all.

I worried though. I was a full-time working mother of a kindergartener who began graduate school in January on a time-limited scholarship and lived 1.5 hours away from my mother. Over the next few months, I juggled everything with great time-management skills, a flexible work environment and an understanding husband. Until, I couldn’t any more! I was “burning my candle at both ends.” I began to be snappy with my family, felt tired all the time, my body was showing signs of serious stress and my mind would never rest.

Then came a critical moment in my graduate school work—I had to identify a thesis topic. As a student in education, I had already been reading about breaking research around mindfulness in the education field. Then, I went to NCAEYC’s 2015 conference and I met Dr. Kathleen Gallagher. Her research at Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute intrigued me and when asked, she happily agreed to be my internship supervisor. The research we conducted around mindfulness and learning to practice mindfulness was the answer to my prayers for my thesis and for being able to be present for my family.

Top 5 Mindful Practices

Here are the top five mindful practices I incorporated into my life. These practices are easy to build into your daily routine at home or in the classroom.

  1. Three Deep Breaths: This practice has helped me calm down when we have received upsetting news. It is also very helpful to teach a child this technique so they have self-regulation tools to calm down more quickly while reducing quick, shallow breathing.
  2. 5-Minute Mindful Breathing: This practice is very helpful as you prepare to address something that you find particularly stressful. I have used this technique for better focus before presentations. At home, this helps me become aware of my emotions before I respond to my daughter.
  3. Mindful Observations: This is a quick exercise you can do to ground yourself when you are feeling overwhelmed or to reconnect when you want to better enjoy a moment. I have been able to use this strategy to enhance the intimate relationship with my husband. 
  4. Body Scan: The body scan has been very useful for the many sleepless nights I had during my mother’s illness. I also guide my daughter through a body scan when she has trouble getting to sleep at night. (Works like a charm!)
  5. Mindful Moments: Repurpose everyday routines or activities into mindful breaks. This can include mindful walks, listening to soothing music, folding laundry, showering or drinking your morning coffee. Making any moment into a mindful moment can help you better enjoy the activity, just by changing your perspective.

I hope you find at least one mindfulness gift to use daily. There is a robust amount of research and resources available just by searching online. Take time this weekend to try these five simple strategies.

I can personally attest that building mindfulness strategies into my life helps me deal with anxiety (good and bad) in a more positive way. I have a better ability to slow down, enjoy life and regulate my awareness as well as be more compassionate with family members and colleagues. 

Written by Kayli Watson, Spring 2019 Communications Intern from UNC Chapel Hill

(From left to right) Chenille Coston, teacher at Little Engine Academy, and Kathy Smith, owner of Little Engine Academy, hold up their outdoor learning environment blueprints from Shape NC.

Health experts have always stressed eating healthy and being active. Instilling these values at an early age can be the first steps for a longer, healthier life for children. Children enrolled in child care may consume between 50 percent and 100 percent of their Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) while in care. Child care programs have a chance to provide the foundation for a healthy life, in terms of food consumption and levels of activity. Child Care Services Association (CCSA) has worked to create programs to help early care centers in multiple ways, including healthy eating and active play.

Shape NC

CCSA implemented Shape NC to increase the number of children starting kindergarten at a healthy weight. The project promotes healthy eating and active play for children from birth-5 years old by working with child care programs to instill healthy behaviors and create a solid foundation for a healthy life. Shape NC integrates multiple research-based models to provide an in-depth approach to childhood obesity prevention. It combines evidence-based programs to create a comprehensive approach in partnership with the following statewide programs: Be Active Kids®, Preventing Obesity by Design and the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (Go NAP SACC).

Little Engine Academy in Durham, N.C.

Like other centers, Little Engine Academy benefits from several of CCSA’s programs, including Shape NC. Kathy Smith, the center’s owner, shared how she became involved in early childhood education and created Little Engine Academy. “It was something I always wanted to do,” Smith said, “The previous owners contacted me to say that they were closing and to see if I was interested, and I jumped on the bandwagon thinking it would probably take a month to open. It actually took about three months.” While Kathy has been managing Little Engine Academy since November 2008, the center  has only been involved in Shape NC for a year.

Little Engine Academy is also working to add more healthy meals to their menus through various programs. “We like to talk to the kids about what they eat, explain where the food came from and why they should be eating it,” Smith said.

Outdoor Learning Environment

For Smith and the children at Little Engine Academy, one of the most exciting aspects of Shape NC is re-building their outdoor learning environment. “We’re part of the natural learning initiative,” Smith explained, “We’re super excited! That’s one of the things about being part of Shape NC [that is exciting as it] is helping us get to have what is called an outdoor learning environment versus a playground.”

The outdoor area is a space for children to strengthen their cognitive, social and emotional development through playing games with other kids in an environment in which they can explore and learn. Additionally, outdoor play helps kids’ physical fitness as well as sensory skills. Little Engine Academy is excited to create an area for their kids to not only learn and explore but garden and learn exactly how food is grown. Now in its second year, Shape NC will help create these spaces for child care centers through funding and fundraising opportunities in its third year.

CCSA’s Other Resources for Little Engine Academy

Shape NC is not the only resource Little Engine Academy has used from CCSA. Chenille Coston, a teacher at Little Engine Academy, is also participating in a T.E.A.C.H. NC Early Childhood Scholarship as she works to obtain her master’s degree. There also employees who have received wage supplements from the Child Care WAGE$®️ Program. Both Coston and Smith talk about the value of professional development opportunities  they have attended. “For me, it’s been really awesome. It’s always good to learn more and they provide a lot of new information for us,” Smith said, “We’ve actually incorporated a lot of things they’ve given us.”

“The trainings [have] provided new strategies that we’ve been able to use in the classroom,” Coston said as she explained a recent strategy they have incorporated to teach the kids movement. The center also participates in CCSA child care scholarships that make attending Little Engine Academy more affordable for parents.

The Future at Little Engine Academy with Shape NC

Parents will continue to be more involved with Little Engine Academy as the school gets closer to its third year of participating in Shape NC. Little Engine Academy is looking for volunteers to help remove playground equipment to make room for the new outdoor learning environment, which they will start fundraising for this summer.

If you’re interested in volunteering with Little Engine Academy to remove their playground equipment contact Jennifer Gioia at 919-967-3272.

CCSA is hosting Shape NC activities this Earth Day Festival Sunday, April 28 from 12 – 5 p.m. at the Durham City Earth Day Festival. Stop by Durham Central Park, 501 Foster St. to enjoy all day performances and tons of fun activities. Learn more here.

Learn more about Shape NC here or call us at 919-967-3272 for more information about the program.

To support the Shape NC project, click here and DONATE NOW! Your gift to fund Shape NC workshops and events in Durham, N.C. will be matched 100% through a Social Innovation Fund Grant.

Written by Marsha Basloe, President of CCSA

Dr. Walter Gilliam presenting Implicit Biases in Early Childhood Settings at the Child Care Resource & Referral (CCR&R) Institute 2019 Conference on March 11, 2019.

“Better Together” was the theme of this year’s Child Care Resource & Referral (CCR&R) Institute held in Greensboro, N.C. in March, and Mary Erwin recently shared details of the Institute. A highlight of this year’s conference was the keynote delivered by Dr. Walter Gilliam from the Edward Zigler Center in Child Development and Social Policy at Yale. This blog is to keep the keynote information on our minds and in our work.

Delivered in a “TED talk” manner, Dr. Gilliam shared his research on implicit bias with the audience and the implications research has on both policy and practice impacting the early childhood workforce and children in early learning settings.

What is Implicit Bias?

Webster’s dictionary defines it as “bias that results from the tendency to process information based on unconscious associations and feelings, even when these are contrary to one’s conscious or declared beliefs”.

What is the Relationship Between Implicit Bias and Early Childhood Settings?

Dr. Gilliam shared data from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights that found black boys in particular were disproportionately suspended or expelled from preschool. To learn more about whether this may be related to the behavior of the child or the perceptions of the teaching workforce, Dr. Gilliam and his team at Yale conducted a study.  Specifically, Dr. Gilliam wanted to see whether implicit biases may play a role in identifying children with challenging behaviors.

Video Observation Study

Dr. Gilliam’s team recruited participants at a nationwide conference of early childhood educators. Early childhood teachers were asked to watch several video clips of preschool children engaged in typical table top activities. The children were racially balanced (one white boy and girl and one black boy and girl). Early childhood teachers were told the study was related to better understanding to how teachers detect challenging behaviors in the classroom. They were told sometimes this involves seeing behavior before it becomes a problem and were asked to press the enter key on a computer keyboard every time they saw a behavior that could become a potential challenge. They were told the video clips may or may not contain challenging behaviors and to press the keypad as often as needed. In addition to the keypad entries, an eye tracking device was used to log the time teachers spent watching the behavior of individual children. (For frame of reference with regard to the children, they were child actors and no challenging behaviors were present).

Heat map related to study participants’ child behavior observations. (Photo Credit: Yale Child Study Center)

Results

Dr. Gilliam and his team found teachers spent more time looking at boys and at black children than girls and white children. In particular, teachers spent more time watching the black boy in the videos. When teachers were asked explicitly which of the children required most of their attention, 42% indicated the black boy, 34% indicated the white boy, 13% indicated the white girl, and 10% indicated the black girl. The race of the teacher did not impact the findings.

Background Information Study

A second part of the study was related to finding out if teachers were provided information about the child’s background, whether that impacted their perception of the severity of the behavior and their ability to impact the child’s behavior. For this part of the study, early childhood teachers were given a brief description of a preschool student with his or her behavioral challenges. The description of child behaviors remained the same, but the name of the child associated with the description changed to reflect stereotypical black and white girl and boy names (Latoya, Emily, DeShawn and Jake).

To test if teachers changed their perceptions of the child’s behavior when given a brief family background summary, some teachers were also given more context related to the child’s home environment (e.g., the child lives with a single mother working multiple jobs and who struggles with depression but doesn’t have resources to receive help; the father is barely around, but when he is around, the parents fight loudly in front of the children, and sometimes violent disputes occur). The study randomized whether the early childhood teachers received background information or not.

Results

Dr. Gilliam and his team found that teachers appeared to expect challenging behaviors more from black children and specifically black boys. Without family background, white teachers seemed to hold black children to lower behavioral expectations. In contrast, black teachers held black children to very high standards.

The provision of family background information caused different perceptions based on teacher-child race. For example, when black teachers were provided with family background information on black children, teachers rated child behavior as less severe. When white teachers were provided with family background information on black children, behavior severity ratings increased – potentially indicating knowing family stressors may lead to feelings of hopelessness that behavior problems can improve.

The Role of Implicit Bias in Early Childhood Settings

Dr. Gilliam explained that understanding the role implicit bias may play in child care and early learning settings is the first step toward addressing racial disparities in discipline approaches. He explained that interventions are underway throughout the country designed to address biases directly or increase teachers’ empathy for children (which paves the way for more effective strategies related to children’s learning styles and behaviors).

Progress in North Carolina

North Carolina is beginning to review and implement strategies to address implicit bias, give early childhood teachers strategies to promote more effective ways to address challenging behavior and to support high-quality child care programs through better teacher-child interactions.

For example, the Infant Toddler Quality Enhancement Project (ITQEP) provides technical assistance through the statewide CCR&R system to better support infant and toddler staff and to improve teacher and child interactions. Staff participating in the Healthy Social Behaviors project use the Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) Pyramid Model to provide tiered support based on individual classroom needs.

We are exploring infant and toddler mental health consultant evidence-based approaches as well as the use of tools to improve teacher-child interactions through the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), which measures teacher interactions and is paired with specific improvement strategies identified through observational assessments. Overall, practice-based coaching models can impact teacher strategies to better meet the needs of children.

For more information on Dr. Gilliam’s research, check out this research brief and the work of the Yale Edward Zigler Center and Child Development and Social Policy.  

Written by Mary Erwin, CCR&R Council Coordinator at CCSA

“When we identify where our privilege intersects with somebody else’s oppression, we’ll find our opportunities to make real change.” 
― Ijeoma Oluo

“Better Together!” That was the theme of this year’s 2019 CCR&R Institute held at the Greensboro Downtown Marriott on March 12 and 13, and it was an opportunity to congregate, enjoy each other’s company, learn how to excel at our jobs, get rejuvenated and also to explore how implicit bias affects early childhood education.

Over 170 staff and 24 presenters from child care resource and referral, Smart Start, Frank Porter Graham Center, UNCG, SchoolHouse Connection, Self Help, the Salvation Army, the Abecedarian Education Foundation, MomsRising and many more gathered from every region across the state for the annual CCR&R professional development conference. Sponsors of the event included Kaplan Early Learning®, Lakeshore Learning®, Discount School Supply®, Teachstone®, The Greensboro Convention and Visitors’ Bureau and Self Help Credit Union. The NC CCR&R Council could not convene the conference without these corporate champions!

Dr. Kristi Snuggs

Conference highlights included:

  • ThinkBabies® Train the Trainer through the NC Early Education Coalition, Dr. Kristi Snuggs’ opening plenary speech about upcoming opportunities and positive changes at the NC Division of Child Development and Early Education and the terrific keynote and session from Dr. Walter Gilliam on implicit bias in early education!
  • Session attendees also learned about increasing access to subsidized child care for children experiencing homelessness and how to be a better advocate for babies and toddlers.
  • Technical assistance and professional development staff received training on helping child care providers understand and address children’s challenging behaviors and the benefits of coaching and mentoring when working with teachers in the classroom.
  • The impacts of family separation on immigrant families and processes to strengthen resilience among children was a popular subject.
  • Save the Children shared the unique needs of children in emergency situations and offered a continuing education credit on helping children cope with crisis and helping caregivers recover!
  • Paid family leave was a topic as well as using multicultural books in the classroom.
  • Community Self Help taught CCR&Rs how to help providers construct budgets that work in their favor as well as recognizing trends and formulating the true cost of child care.
Woolworth’s Lunch Counter

Tuesday night’s reception at the International Civil Rights Center and Museum welcomed approximately 100 conference attendees for a beautiful cocktail party and tour of the original Woolworth’s Lunch Counter where four NC A&T University students started the sit-in movement in 1960. The lovely event was catered by Guilford Child Development’s Regional CCR&R, sponsor of the event along with the Greensboro Convention and Visitor’s Bureau!

Dr. Gilliam

Dr. Gilliam leads The Edward Zigler Center in Child Development and Social Policy at Yale University where research and policy analyses focus on early childhood development and intervention programs. During the keynote on Wednesday, attendees gained insight on how implicit biases affect nearly everything we do, even as early childhood professionals. The keynote address dug down to the core of so many of our current issues. Click here to see and hear Dr. Gilliam’s similar keynote address at Dayton’s Readiness Conference.

Quotes from the conference:

“You and the NC CCR&R Council team did a phenomenal job!”

“Great event. Good energy all around. You guys have it going on!”

“It was great working with you.”

“I thought I was in a TED Talk and I was going to vote for [Dr. Gilliam] for president!”

Marsha Basloe, President of Child Care Services Association

Last week I had the opportunity to attend an early childhood summit in Raleigh to support the launch of the North Carolina Early Childhood Action Plan.  Governor Roy Cooper, Former Governor Jim Hunt, Department of Health and Human Services Secretary Mandy Cohen, state legislators, philanthropists, advocates and early childhood leaders from across the state came to Raleigh to unite behind a 10-goal plan with measurable benchmarks to improve the lives of young children by 2025. Dr. Jack P. Shonkoff, Director of the Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University, was the keynote speaker.

North Carolina has been a national leader on early childhood initiatives over the past several decades. And during those years, much progress has been made to better meet the needs of our state’s young children. However, even with those efforts, still too many children are left behind and the health, well-being and school readiness gap between children of different races and ethnicities is stark.

Last August, Governor Cooper charged the NC Department of Health and Human Services to work with the NC Early Childhood Advisory Council to develop a statewide Early Childhood Action Plan to:

  • improve young children’s health,
  • support safe and nurturing environments for children and families, and
  • provide high-quality early childhood learning opportunities.

The governor’s Executive Order called for strategies and timeframes for achieving the goals as well as metrics that would be publicly reported to chart progress. Nearly 1,500 people throughout the state provided suggestions and feedback on an early draft released in November 2018. Over the next six months, the plan was drafted and coordinated by Becki Planchard, MPP, Senior Early Childhood Policy Advisor at NCDHHS.

Early Childhood Action Plan Goals and Targets

Goal 1: Healthy Babies

2025 Target: By 2025, reduce the statewide infant mortality rate across by child race and ethnicity.

Goal 2: Preventive Health Services

2025 Target: By 2025, increase the percentage of North Carolina’s young children enrolled in Medicaid and Health Choice who receive regular well-child visits as part of a health care delivery process that provides comprehensive, patient-centered, accessible, quality care as recommended for the ages of young children.

Goal 3: Food Security

2025 Target: By 2025, reduce the percentage of children living across North Carolina in food insecure homes.

Goal 4: Safe and Secure Housing

2025 Target: (Part 1) By 2025, reduce the percentage of children across North Carolina under age six experiencing homelessness by at least 10%.  (Part 2) By 2025, reduce the number of children in kindergarten through third grade enrolled in NC public schools who are experiencing homelessness by at least 10%.

Goal 5: Safe and Nurturing Relationships

2025 Target: By 2025, reduce by 10% the rate of children in North Carolina who are substantiated victims of child abuse and maltreatment.

Goal 6: Permanent Families for Children in Foster Care

2025 Target: (Part 1) Reunification: By 2025, reduce the number of days it takes for a child in the foster care system to be reunified with his or her family, if appropriate.  (Part 2) Adoption: By 2025, reduce the number of days it takes for a child in the foster care system to be adopted, if reunification is not appropriate.

Goal 7: Social-Emotional Health and Resilience

2025 Target: By 2025, North Carolina will have a reliable, statewide measure of young children’s social-emotional health and resilience at the population level.

Goal 8: High-Quality Early Learning

2025 Target: (Part 1) By 2025, increase the percentage of income-eligible children enrolled in NC Pre-K statewide from 47% to 75%. (Part 2) By 2025, reduce the percent of family income spent on child care according to statewide price data and income thresholds adjusted by family size.

Goal 9: On Track for School Success

2025 Target: By 2025, increase the percentage of children across North Carolina who enter kindergarten at a level typical for their age group, according to the five domains of the NC DPI Kindergarten Entry Assessment (KEA).

Goal 10: Reading at Grade Level

2025 Target: By 2025, increase the percentage of children across the state achieving high levels of reading proficiency by both NC state end of year testing and national testing conducted through the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).

Progress against the goals will be reported on a newly created Early Childhood Action Plan public dashboard. The NC Early Childhood Action Plan and the Executive Summary are available on the DHHS website. A recording of the early childhood summit is posted here.

The action plan is the beginning.

It’s up to all of us in each community to lean in and make a difference. Dr. Shonkoff summed it up well, “Build responsive relationships, reduce sources of stress, and strengthen core life skills.” The benchmarks are attainable if we all lean in. It’s time to roll up our sleeves and expand what works and apply innovative solutions to the hard challenges that may require some more customized approaches.

Marsha Basloe, President of Child Care Services Association

It’s common sense that parents with young children need access to child care in order to obtain and retain a job, which makes child care providers a vital part of local and state economies.  That’s why a report released by the Committee for Economic Development, Child Care in State Economies: 2019 Update is so important. The report reviews the market-based child care industry (which includes centers and home-based child care providers) and estimates that child care has an overall economic impact of $99.3 billion – supporting over 2 million jobs throughout the country.

What the report shows is that there is a strong link between child care and state and local economic growth and development. And, that the child care industry causes spillover effects (additional economic activity like the purchase of goods and services and job creation or support within the community) beyond those employed within child care or the business income of those operating centers or home-based programs.

Here in North Carolina, child care programs have an overall economic impact of $3.15 billion ($1.47 billion in direct revenue and $1.67 billion in spillover in other industries throughout our counties and cities).  Child care programs have an overall jobs impact throughout the state of 64,852, which includes 47,282 individuals who are employed within child care centers or who operate a home-based business plus another 17,570 in spillover jobs – created through the activity of those operating child care programs.

The economic impact of child care matters because it helps drive local economies. When parents can access child care, they are more likely to enter the workforce and stay employed.

Access to affordable child care also supports parents who seek additional education or job training, which can result in higher earnings over an individual’s lifetime. For example, according to U.S. Census Bureau data, the difference between the income of a parent in North Carolina with a high school degree and a parent who dropped out of high school is $6,231 annually[i], but over a lifetime, that’s $249,240 the parent would earn just by going back to school to earn a high school diploma.  If that parent were to enroll in community college, and obtain an Associate’s degree, he or she could earn $10,652 more annually[ii] or $426,080 more over a lifetime compared to a parent who has not graduated from high school.

Earnings for those with a college degree are that much higher — $17,748 annually[iii] for a parent who has a Bachelor’s degree compared to a parent with an AA ($709,920 more over a lifetime). When parents have access to child care, both labor force participation grows (and with that, the ability for parents to support their families) and also the potential for parents to return to school to increase their earnings over the long-term becomes possible.

Child Care Costs & Labor Force Participation

In North Carolina, the average annual cost of child care is expensive. For center-based infant care, the cost is about $9,254 per year, and for home-based care, it’s $7,412.[iv] The cost of center-based infant care exceeds the cost of tuition at our 4-year universities and is 19.2% of state median income. With an understanding of the economic impact of child care, it’s concerning that parents may opt out of the workforce or reduce their hours at work when they can’t afford to pay the cost of child care. It not only means that parents could be less likely to be self-supporting, but that local economies are impacted as well – twice in fact. First, they are impacted by families who without employment may depend on welfare and second, communities are impacted by revenue foregone (no earnings or reduced earnings by those who reduce their hours means less revenue to support basic community needs such as police and fire protection, or local schools).

The CED report finds an economic return related to the use of child care subsidies that support parents in entering or staying in the workforce. CED estimates that for every additional federal dollar spent for child care subsidies to help parents work, there’s a $3.80 increase in state economic activity.

Child Care has a Two-Generational Impact

While I’ve mentioned the economic impact of child care on state and local economies, there is also the two-generational role that child care plays with regard to families and young children. Child care is a work support for parents, but it also enables children to be in a setting that promotes their healthy development and school readiness (while their parents work).  In this way, child care not only has a direct impact on the economy today, but also impacts the economy of tomorrow.

The impact of child care is broad-based:

  • There’s the direct impact of economic activity or revenue generated by those in the child care industry (centers and home-based providers),
  • There’s the indirect impact or spillover impact that results within communities from the operation of these businesses,
  • There’s the employment impact of jobs within the industry and spillover jobs as a result of the industry,
  • There’s the employer impact as parents who have access to child care reliably show up for work and are productive while at work, and
  • There’s the impact on children who have access to quality child care that supports their healthy development.

Check out CED’s Child Care in State Economies: 2019 Update report today.


[i] U.S. Census Bureau, Table S2001, Earnings in the Past 12 Months, 2017 American Community Survey. https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_17_1YR_S2001&prodType=table

[ii] Ibid.

[iii] Ibid.

[iv] The US and the High Cost of Child Care:2018, Child Care Aware of America, http://usa.childcareaware.org/advocacy-public-policy/resources/research/costofcare/

Marsha Basloe, President of Child Care Services Association

A few years ago, I had the opportunity to work on an Early Childhood Homelessness – 50 State Profile at a time when states were just beginning to look at early childhood services to young children experiencing homelessness. I was fortunate to be able to work with an intern, Jinha Yoon, who had just graduated from Georgetown and who had a passion for data. Jinha was excited to be part of this project and I was excited to have her ability to do magic with the multitude of data and spreadsheets! The first 50 state profile was released in January 2015 using 2013 data. (Although I had to say good bye to Jinha, I was pleased to be a reference for her first job.)

In 2017, knowing that we needed more recent data, John McLaughlin from the Dept. of Education and I had the opportunity to work with the D.C. Education Policy Fellows Program (EPFP) to update the 50 State profiles. EPFP sponsored by the Institute for Educational Leadership provides wonderful opportunities for Fellows to develop leadership skills and an understanding of public policy. Fortunately, it also includes a major group project.

Three students, Abigail Cohen, Madelyn Gardner and Jennifer McDowell, signed on to help update the 50 State profiles and put their stamp on the new product as their EPFP project. It was fun working with them, answering questions, seeing their research, hearing their ideas, previewing the pages and more. I remember the day they came to present the updated Early Childhood Homelessness in the United States: 50-State Profile to a group of us at ACF. They’d already presented to their classmates as you can see in the picture above. It was released in June 2017 using newer data from 2015 and they had added new related factors – housing cost burden and percent of families with children under age 6 working, but remaining low income.  States immediately used this new information.

Last week, when I attended the National Research Conference on Early Childhood (NRCEC) in Washington, D.C., I had another chance to see them and their work! They had submitted a poster session and had been accepted to present on their project: Exploring Early Childhood Homelessness in the United States: Prevalence and Access to Federal Early Childhood Education Services.  I was the first person to get to their poster session got to hear them talk about the project and all they had learned. I was so pleased for them and for our community. Abby and Maddy (pictured here) stepped up to be part of a leadership program and took great pride in this project. It does make me hopeful that with new, young researchers in our field, we are going to do good things for children and families in the future.

(Basloe was the senior advisor in the Office of Early Childhood at the Administration for Children and Families, DHHS.)